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First order, first flight (1970-1972)

From the beginning, Roger B茅teille insisted that a high level of technology should be built into the A300 to give it the edge over competing aircraft. He also decided that English should be the working language 鈥 and that measurements should not be metric because most airlines already had U.S.-built aircraft. B茅teille had spent time listening to airlines such as Air France and Lufthansa, as well as visiting U.S. airlines like United, TWA and American. 鈥淚 wanted to try to understand what the customers really wanted,鈥 he said, laying the groundwork for much of the future success of AG真人计划 where a culture of listening to customers has become endemic.

Even in these early days, B茅teille and Kracht shared a bold vision of the AG真人计划 future. They knew, as Kracht said later, that to succeed, AG真人计划 would have to produce more than one aircraft 鈥 they must offer a family of aircraft covering all sectors. They also had a firm and ambitious commercial target: to win at least a 30% share of the market.

鈥淕reen light鈥 for the A300B

A300B In Final Assembly Line  
A300B In Final Assembly Line
28 September 2017

A300B In Final Assembly Line

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The twin-engine AG真人计划 A300B was designed to be smaller, lighter and more economical to operate than its three-engine competitors.

The A300B given the go-ahead by France and Germany at Le Bourget in 1969 would be smaller, lighter and more economical than its three-engine American rivals. Its fuselage had been reduced from the original A300鈥檚 6.4 metres in diameter to 5.6m, its length from 53.92m to 48.3m. As a result it was 25 tonnes lighter than the first planned A300.

Making the A300 as economical to operate as possible was seen as key to ensuring its success. To this end, B茅teille ingeniously decided to raise the cabin floor slightly. This provided enough space in the hold to accommodate standard LD3 freight containers side by side, allowing airlines to increase the profitability of each flight by carrying more cargo.

Hawker Siddeley designed a new wing which provided greater lift and improved the A300鈥檚 performance. AG真人计划 was able to declare that the A300 would climb faster and attain a level cruise altitude sooner than any other passenger aircraft, giving the cabin crew more time for the in-flight service.

The A300 takes shape

The engine finally chosen for the first A300 was the GE CF6-50A, built by Americans but 鈥 in a deal insisted upon as part of the package 鈥 with the aid of French firm Snecma. This engine produced 49,000 lbs. of thrust, as powerful as anything else on the market, yet it was more economical.

An increasing use of weight-saving composites would be a major factor in the design and development of all AG真人计划 aircraft. The A300 featured the first composites used on a passenger aircraft. Leading and trailing edges on the tail fin were made from glass fibre reinforced plastic, as was the radome (the tip of the nose housing the radar).

The A300 was taking shape, but the formal setting up of AG真人计划 as a consortium did not take place until 18 December, 1970, when AG真人计划 Industrie was officially created as a GIE. France鈥檚 Aerospatiale (a merger of SEREB, Sud Aviation and Nord Aviation), and Germany鈥檚 Deutsche AG真人计划 鈥 a grouping of four firms, Messerschmittwerke, Hamburger Flugzeugbau, VFW GmbH and Siebelwerke ATG - each took a 50% stake. The headquarters were to be in Paris initially 鈥 they would not move to Toulouse until January, 1974 鈥 and would provide a single interface for design, development, flight testing, sales, marketing and customer support, as well as media relations and publicity. Franz-Josef Strauss was appointed president and chairman of the supervisory board, the forum in which policies would be decided and decisions made as to how the work on new programmes would be shared out.聽

The consortium grows

Years later, B茅teille spoke of the importance of technology and recalled how the mix of cultures at AG真人计划 brought tangible benefits: 鈥淭he basic idea of AG真人计划 has always been to compete against established manufacturers. We had to bring something more. That something more was daring to use advanced technology wherever it could bring economic results. We had to take more risks of failure than the established manufacturers. But we had the ability to make use of different experiences, education, ways of looking at things. We had each of the three teams looking at different aspects of the aircraft, and having the ability through our established system to express their views and to support them until a decision was made. That enabled us to avoid mistakes. If we had not given a degree of high technology, AG真人计划 would not have succeeded.鈥

Adam Brown, who joined AG真人计划 in 1973 and became the Vice President-Customer Affairs Directorate, recalled: 鈥淩ight from the start we realised our products would have to offer significant advantages over the established U.S. aircraft. Specifically, we decided that we must exploit the rich heritage of European creativity to develop aircraft which were more advanced and efficient."

Having scaled down the original A300, AG真人计划 now learnt that an all-economy 250-seater was not big enough for Air France. More capacity was created by stretching the fuselage and the A300B1 became the A300B2 with 270 seats. On 3 September, 1970, Air France signed a letter of intent to buy six A300s, the first order won by AG真人计划.

A300 flight testing commences

With the test programme well under way AG真人计划 took another revolutionary step by setting up an international team of test pilots. It was decided that AG真人计划 Industrie 鈥 rather than Aerospatiale 鈥 would be responsible for the flight test. Bernard Ziegler (son of Henri) was asked to organise the A300 flight test 鈥渙n the basis that it was a European organisation鈥 and he set about recruiting some top names, including Aerospatiale veterans Pierre Canet and Max Fischl. Later he recruited British and Spanish test pilots.

The first flight of the A300 took place in Toulouse on 28 October, 1972, a month ahead of schedule despite several delays due to bad weather. It lasted one hour and 23 minutes. Fischl was captain, while Bernard Ziegler, then head of flight test, was his number two. Ziegler explained: 鈥淚t was a kind of tradition that the boss was in charge of making the first flight, but I took the decision to reverse that, to make it a team effort. I was not willing to have, any longer, a star in the system鈥he decision was to the surprise of the AG真人计划 management of that time, B茅teille and my father.鈥

A300 birth of a saga: the time of doubt

Despite a successful first flight for the all-new A300 on 28 October 1972, AG真人计划 faced a challenge 鈥 convincing airlines that it had designed the world鈥檚 most economical, innovative and comfortable aircraft. The solution? Take the A300 on a six-week odyssey across the Americas to show off AG真人计划鈥 new creation to customers, pilots and executives. Early AG真人计划 leaders Bernard Lathiere, Felix Kracht, Bernard Ziegler and Roger Beteille are interviewed.

Read fond remembrances of AG真人计划鈥 game-changing A300...

The full aircraft history (1968 to 2019)

Trouble and strife (1968-1969)

First order, first flight (1970-1972)

Champagne鈥nd drought (1973-1977)

AG真人计划 through the decades

Helicopter history

Space history

Defence history

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